Look at the big picture first, then learn specific details. Skim reading assignments for the general idea first, then read for details.
Associate new information with what you have already learned.
Learn actively: stand up, walk around, make gestures, get the whole body involved in energetically learning the material you are studying.
Create pictures, either in your mind or on paper. Illustrate concepts and facts. By visualizing information, you store that information in the verbal and visual parts of the brain.
Mnemonic devices: Make up a silly saying using the first letter of each word to memorize items in a list. Example: My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas = Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
If you don't need to memorize facts in order, take the first letter of each word, then rearrange them to make a word. Example: HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior
Make up a rhyme to remember facts. Example: "Thirty days hath November, April, June, and September, February hath twenty-eight alone, and all the rest have thirty-one."
Use flash cards. These are helpful for large amounts of information (foreign vocabulary, mathematical formulas, scientific terms, etc.).
Recite information out loud. This uses more than one sense also, and stores information in more than one place. Repeat the information in your own words. Be creative: make up a song about what you are learning, imitate someone else reading the information and putting it in their style of speaking.
Write the information down. This is active, and it uses another part of the brain.
Choose information to NOT memorize. Decide what is the most important and learn those ideas, not extra information you don't need.
If you can't remember the actual information, remember something that it is related to it. Example: If you can't remember the specific fact, remember what example/illustration the professor used while lecturing, or if you can't remember the formula for finding the circumference of a circle using the diameter, use the formula for finding the circumference using the radius.
Use the information you have memorized. Example: If the test is a week away, make a study guide and answer it or attend a study lab and help others.